This paper reviews the extent and trends in female participation in the labour market, with a focus on the adjusted gender pay gap.
Key Findings: In 2018, Singapore’s adjusted gender pay gap (GPG) figure is 6.0%. It has narrowed over time, from 8.8% in 2002. The analysis of Singapore’s GPG showed that the differing representation of men and women in higher/lower paying occupations (i.e. occupational segregation) is a key driver of the gender wage gap, and its role has grown over time.
Even after adjustment, GPG of 6.0% exists as the study methodology is unable to account for some factors, e.g., job level, work experience, caregiving responsibilities. Women’s propensity to play the primary role in caregiving and take time off work for parenting leads to lags in work experience, career progression and hence earnings.
For more details about the study, please refer to the paper.
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