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Concepts and Definitions

Job-related Structured Training or education refers to training that is related to a current and future job. It is training in which the learning experience is under the direction of a teacher/ lecturer/ course supervisor and organised in a progressive sequence. It includes classroom training, private lessons, correspondence courses, workshops, seminars, structured on-the-job training, apprenticeship training and mandatory courses. However, it excludes informal on-the-job training such as watching a video on management skills, observing others perform a task at work, time spent at work learning new tasks and keeping up to date with work-related developments by reading journals/ newspapers and informal discussions.


Training Participation Rate
(also known as Training Incidence Rate) is the proportion of residents aged 15 to 64 in the labour force who had engaged in some form of job-related structured training or education activities over a 12-month period ending June of each year.

Training Intensity is the duration of job-related structured training per adult. It is derived by multiplying the training participation rate by the average (mean) training days per trainee.
Total Training Cost or expenditure is the amount incurred by employers on training before deducting the cost recovered from training incentive schemes such as the Skills Development Fund (SDF), government agencies, statutory boards and/ or private sponsors. Statistics are also available on net training cost after deducting the cost recovered from training incentive schemes.​